What are antibiotics?

Antibiotics are a name that is no longer strange to everyone. This familiar drug appears in treating many diseases, from simple to complex, and can be purchased at almost any drugstore. However, do you understand this drug? Let’s learn more about the benefits and risks that it brings to the patient’s health.

Learn about antibiotics

The following antibiotic information will help you better understand this familiar drug.

How are called antibiotics?

Antibiotics are substances with antibacterial ability derived from microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, Actinomycetes. Antibiotics are used to inhibit, inhibit growth and destroy other microorganisms comprehensively. Today, antibiotics are also created by synthetic or semi-synthetic methods from chemical substances.

What are antibiotics?

Antibiotics are drugs that kill bacteria that cause infections or are combined in the treatment of other diseases. Antibiotics are produced in oral tablets, liquids that are infused or injected into the body. Depending on the needs of the patient to choose the drugs used effectively

What are antibiotics?

What are antibiotics?

Antibiotics and their effects

Antibacterial Antibiotics

  • Antibiotics of the Beta-Lactam group

Representative of Beta-Lactam group: Penicillin group, Cephalosporin antibiotic. There are also other antibiotics such as carbapenem group, monobactam group, etc.

Penicillin antibiotics are indicated for use in patients with respiratory tract infections, encephalitis – meningococcal infections, endocarditis, ear infections, urinary tract infections, bacterial infections. soft tissue, etc. It has the effect of fighting and preventing mild infections due to the attack of bacteria when the body is injured.

Infection during and after surgery. Cephalosporin antibiotics include three generations: Cefalexin, Cefuroxime, Cefotaxime. Antibiotics are effective against problems related to respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and soft tissue infections (purulent or non-purulent skin lesions) and are used to prevent the phenomenon. These drugs are also used in the treatment of meningitis, endocarditis, gonorrhea, typhoid, etc.

  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics

Aminoglycoside antibiotics include types such as Kanamycin, Gentamicin, Amikacin, Tobramycin.

Antibiotics in this group have a bactericidal effect. Inhibits the growth of gram-negative bacteria, staphylococci, tuberculosis bacilli. Streptomycin belongs to this group and is used to treat tuberculosis. In addition, the remaining antibiotics can be combined with some other types to use for people with pathologies of bacteremia, skin infections, urinary tract infections, green pus bacilli, inflammation endocarditis, meningitis, etc.

  • Lincosamide class antibiotic

The group of antibiotics includes two main drugs: Lincomycin – an antibiotic from natural microorganisms, and Clindamycin – an antibiotic made in a semi-synthetic form.

Ability to reproduce and grow. The protein of microorganisms cannot increase or form, causing the activity of these microorganisms to be stopped and lost. The antibiotics of the Lincosamide group have the primary function of bacteriostasis due to the inhibition of protein synthesis. This group of drugs is indicated for use in people with severe infections in the respiratory tract, infections in bones, joints, or genitals. Besides, it also prevents endocarditis, treating pneumonia, lung abscess, or diseases related to genital inflammation in women.

  • Macrolide antibiotic

This group includes many commonly used antibiotics such as Erythromycin, Spiramycin, etc.

These drugs kill and inhibit the growth of many types of bacteria. They are often used for diseases that have used penicillin but have not been effective, bacteria resistant to penicillin. These drugs are usually indicated when treating acne, respiratory infections, soft tissue and skin infections, oral infections, sore throats, sinusitis, etc.

what are antibiotics 3

Antibiotics and their effects

  • Phenicol group of antibiotics

There are two main classes of antibiotics: Chloramphenicol and Thiamphenicol.

The mechanism of action of this group of bacteria inhibits the growth and proliferation of bacteria when inhibiting the ability to synthesize proteins that make bacteria unable to grow. Medicines in this group are indicated for use in infections of the eyes, hands, skin, and in the vaginal area of ​​women.

In addition, on the market, you can easily find many different antibiotics: Tetracycline antibiotics – indicated for the treatment of acne, malaria, brucellosis; Quinolone antibiotics are used for severe systemic infections.

Antifungal drugs

Commonly used antifungal antibiotics: Nystatin, Ketoconazole, Griseophunvin

Antifungal antibiotics have the effect of killing parasitic fungi on the skin and in the mucous membranes such as Candida, Trichophyton, Microsporum hands, toes.

The harm of the abuse of antibiotics

The health of the patient. Abuse of antibiotics affects user’s health: The main effect of antibiotics is to kill bacteria and fungi, so if misused, improper use of antibiotics, dosage, and self-administration will seriously affect health—antibiotics kill harmful bacteria and prevent the growth of beneficial bacteria in the mucous membranes, gums, pharynx, digestive system, etc.

Therefore, using antibiotics too often causes dysbacteriosis, causing beneficial bacteria to be destroyed and seriously affecting health. For the elderly, improper antibiotics can also cause dangerous complications such as anaphylaxis, which can be fatal if not treated promptly. Young children are also severely affected if they misuse antibiotics, making them more susceptible to asthma, weakened resistance, etc. Hence, it is difficult for them to develop healthily.

Abuse of antibiotics affects the community: The use of antibiotics is “easy”. When there is a disease, they go to buy antibiotics. Not only that, but a person also uses 2-3 different antibiotics to “help” the disease heal quickly. This can lead to the phenomenon; bacteria create resistance to antibiotics, resistant to the effects of drugs. Once bacteria have developed into a state of drug resistance, it will quickly spread from person to person and create new, hazardous bacteria.

If the bacteria spread quickly without finding a drug to resist soon, it can cause the number of infected people to increase more dangerously, leading to death.

Overuse of antibiotics causes difficulties in disease treatment: Some people buy and use antibiotics at home. After a period of unresolved illness, they choose to go to medical facilities for examination. This makes the patient’s condition more severe, the recovery time is longer, and at the same time, the cost of treatment becomes higher. Thus, the patient not only does not “help” himself but also unwittingly “harms” himself, seriously affecting his health.

Therefore, if you have any health problems, go to the hospital to be examined, diagnosed, and prescribed drugs to use safely and effectively.

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